Purple Mangosteen
(Garcinia mangostana L.)








Jackfruit
PLANT
IMAGES




    Family: Clusiaceae
    Genus: Garcinia
    Species: G. mangostana
    Common Names: Mangosteen
    Cultivation: An ultra-tropical tree, the mangosteen must be grown in consistently warm conditions.


PLANT DESCRIPTION
Documented Properties
& Actions:

Mangosteen is becoming a major botanical dietary supplement and has greatly increased in sales in the U.S. and around the world Because the concentration levels of xanthones in mangosteen juice are rather high, the consequences of frequent intake of mangosteen botanical dietary supplements might involve significant aromatase inhibition, and mangosteen-based products containing these xanthones could be specially marketed for hormone-dependent breast cancer prevention and treatment in post-menopausal women. It is also known to improve the immune system and promote good health. Mangosteen has shown blood thinning effects in laboratory tests, which may potentially double the anticoagulant affects of blood thinners.

Plant
Traits
Include:

The Purple Mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana), colloquially known simply as "the mangosteen", is a tropical evergreen tree, believed to have originated in the Sunda Islands and the Moluccas of Indonesia. The tree grows from 7 to 25 m (20–80 ft) tall. The rind (exocarp) of the edible fruit is deep reddish purple when ripe. Botanically an aril, the fragrant edible flesh can be described as sweet and tangy, citrusy with peach flavor and texture.

Before ripening, the mangosteen shell is fibrous and firm, but becomes soft and easy to pry open when the fruit ripens. To open a mangosteen, the shell is usually scored first with a knife; one holds the fruit in both hands, prying gently along the score with the thumbs until the rind cracks. It is then easy to pull the halves apart along the crack and remove the fruit. Rarely in ripe fruits, the purple exocarp juice may stain skin or fabric.


About Mangosteen.

Due to ongoing restrictions on imports, mangosteen is not readily available in certain countries. Although available in Australia, for example, they are still rare in the produce sections of grocery stores in North America and Europe. Following export from its natural growing regions in Southeast Asia, the fresh fruit may be available seasonally in some local markets like those of Chinatowns. Mangosteen and its related products, such as juices and nutritional supplements, are legally imported into the United States, which had an import ban until 2007.

Mangosteens are readily available canned and frozen in Western countries. Without fumigation or irradiation as fresh fruit, mangosteens have historically been illegal for importation in commercial volumes into the United States due to fears that they harbor the Asian fruit fly, which would endanger U.S. crops. This situation, however, officially changed on July 23, 2007 when irradiated imports from Thailand were allowed upon USDA approval of irradiation, packing and shipping techniques. Freeze-dried and dehydrated mangosteen arils can also be found.

From 2006 to present, private small volume orders from fruits grown on Puerto Rico are being filled for American gourmet restaurants who serve the aril pieces as a delicacy dessert. Beginning in 2007 for the first time, fresh mangosteens are also being sold for as high as $45 per pound from specialty produce stores in New York City.

Source and History..

Cultivation of Lychee began in the region of southern China, Malaysia, and northern Vietnam. Wild trees still grow in rainforest in Guangdong province and on Hainan Island. Unofficial records in China refer to Lychee as far back as 2000BCE.

In the 1st century, fresh lychees were in such demand at the Imperial Court, that a special courier service with fast horses would bring the fresh fruit from Canton. There was great demand for lychee in the Sung Dynasty (960-1279ACE), according to Ts'ai Hsiang, in his Li chi pu (Treatise on Lychees). It was also the favourite fruit of Emperor Li Longji (Xuanzong)'s favoured concubine Yang Yuhuan (Yang Guifei). The emperor had the fruit delivered at great expense to the capital.

In the Chinese classical work, Shanglin Fu, it is related that the alternate name, meaning leaving its branches, is so-called because once the fruit is picked it deteriorates quickly.

The lychee was first described in the West by Pierre Sonnerat (1748–1814) on a return from his travel to China and Southeast Asia. It was then introduced to the Réunion Island in 1764 by Joseph-François Charpentier de Cossigny de Palma. It was later introduced to Madagascar which has become a major producer.

Nutritional Facts.

The aril is the flavorful part of the fruit but, when analyzed specifically for its nutrient content, the mangosteen aril only meets the first criterion above, as its overall nutrient profile is absent of important content.

Some mangosteen juice products contain whole fruit purée or polyphenols extracted from the inedible exocarp (rind) as a formulation strategy to add phytochemical value. The resulting juice has purple color and astringency derived from exocarp pigments, including xanthones under study for potential anti-disease effects. The potential health benefits of xanthones were debated in a four-part series in 2009.

Mangosteen,
canned, syrup pack
Nutritional value per 100 g (3.5 oz)
Energy 305 kJ (73 kcal)
Carbohydrates 18 g
Sugars  ? g
Dietary fibre 1.8 g
Fat 0.6 g
Protein 0.4 g
Water 81 g
Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults.
Source:USDA Nutrient database

Action, Medical Uses, and Dosage.

Mangosteen is described as an anti-diabetic, supports Endocrine system health and is considered to be the most abundant source for Xanthones, which have shown potent antioxidant properties. Researches have identified a total of over 40 Xanthones from the hull, rind and the pulp of Mangosteen fruits. Mangosteen is thought to have been traditionally used by natural health providers for thousands of years. Modern day science has recently begun to appreciate the incredible, nutrient-rich value of mangosteen and its wide-reaching, health-promoting properties and is a great choice of fruit in this beverage to consume because it contains a number of vitamins and minerals in trace amounts.